Survey Results: How Much Should I Pay a Freelance Writer? Infographic

editors rates payscale

What Salaries Do Authors Make?

The answer to ‘how much money does an author make?’ depends on many factors, such as whether the author is self-published or traditionally published, the number of projects currently in their pipeline, how many novels the author in question has previously published, and what the details of these publishing deals might be.

Because the publishing world has evolved to such an extent over the years, many more avenues are now open to writers – making it harder to provide a ballpark figure for author earnings. According to the site, the average author salary in the UK stands at $33,078 per annum as of 9th February 2022. Although this may be a generous overestimation if they calculate that by including all the millions authors like J K Rowling make and dividing it by the number of published books out there.

Writing is not like other professions, where there are salary scales and overtime payments. It all comes down to which path to publication you decide to take, how much time you have to write, how you sell your work, and how many books you can produce in a year. That’s just to make money from your first book – because staying a published writer takes even more work!

Ballpark Figures

Self-published authors can earn up to 70% royalties from their books, while most traditionally published authors make 5-18% royalties which they only receive after ‘earning out’. That means the books sales have “paid back” their advances and the publishers then start giving them a cut of book sales. From a major publisher, such as one of the “Big Five,” an advance can start from $5,000 for a first-time, unknown author and can go into five figures. This may be more if the author is well-known, happens to have a more established literary reputation, it’s a multi-book deal, or the author has an impressive back catalogue.

Sometimes a debut (or less-established) author can hit upon a very topical idea and write a book that has publishers bidding against one another. Debut Middle Grade author, Anabelle Steadman, recently won a seven-figure book deal with Simon & Schuster (including Sony film rights) for her bloodthirsty unicorn series. So, although very rare, you can get lucky!

Smaller, independent publishers, tend to offer lower advances to their writers – sometimes in the region of $3,000-$10,000. Although some compensate for this by paying their writers a higher royalty revenue, which kicks in sooner as it takes a lot less time to recoup the advance.

Bearing all this in mind, some may argue that the answer to making lots of money writing books is to self-publish. Yes, you will certainly receive more money per book – but it’s not that simple either.

Author and Jericho Writers founder, Harry Bingham, wrote about this in his recent article for Jericho Writers. Unlike traditional publishing, when you self-publish you have to cover all costs of design, editing, typesetting, distribution, marketing and advertising yourself. You can expect to pay anything between $800-5000,000 to have your book professionally edited and proofread, as well as anything from $100-$600 for a decent cover design.

You may not have agent fees to worry about, but you will also need to be your own publicist – and with self-publishing becoming more popular by the day, that means understanding online advertising and getting your book to market.

How much should you pay a freelance writer for your marketing content?

This FAQ doesn’t have a simple answer. Most intermediate to advanced freelance writers charge between

Freelance writing rates explained

We addressed a big question in content marketing: How much should you pay freelance writers? Or, if you are a freelance writer, how much should you charge? It’s kind of hard to know unless someone tells you, right?

The best way to get an answer to “how much to pay a freelance writer” was to take it to the streets. We polled 500+ freelance writers from around the country to see what they charge, how they charge, what type of content they produce, the corresponding level of experience, and even gender to see if a gap exists like in so many other industries.

Questions we asked in our survey on freelance writing rates:

1. How many years of experience do you have as a professional freelance writer?

2. How do you charge?

3. What do you charge per hour? (Approximate if N/A)

4. What do you charge per word? (Approximate if N/A)

5. What tasks do you complete for clients?

6. What is your gender?

2018 How Much Should Freelancers Charge For Work?

.10 and 800 per word, depending on the amount of work they will have to put into the project. But, the way they bill that average range will vary. Some freelance writers bill at a flat rate, per hour, or per monthly retainer for frequent work (in this case, a volume-based discount should apply), rather than per word. Typically, freelance writers who use one of those last three billing methods will include services beyond just the content.

In addition, rates change per industry, company, writer, location, and project (and many other variables), which is probably why this question often goes unanswered on the Interwebs. But, that’s not helpful for anyone.

Define Your Content Writing Rates

  • The more experienced you are, the more you focus on content close to sales (like copywriting and ebooks), and the more complex the project, the more you can charge.
  • Aim to work outside freelance marketplaces; develop your writing site, and attract clients there. Focus on building relationships with your clients so you can get repeat and referral work.
  • Per-project fees are better than per-word. Per-hour pricing isn’t common, although you can use it to base your project fees.
  • English Native speakers from countries like the US and Australia make an average of $25 per hour, while Canadians make 22% less than them, and British writers make 10% more. If you live outside these countries, you can adapt your fees accordingly. But remember, your location shouldn’t be the only factor you take in your calculations. What matters is your content quality, not where you live.

Get FREE Content Marketing Tips


Rohn: How to Create a Master Plan for Your Life

Rohn: How to Create a Master Plan for Your Life

Rohn: How to Create a Master Plan for Your Life

Wouldn’t you prefer a life of productivity rather than a life of endless tasks with little accomplishment? Of course! When you carefully set your goals and keep them at the forefront of your mind, you can work smarter instead of longer. You’ll know that a life worth living comes from a life of balance.

Ambitious people know that each step toward their goals is not a singular step. Each discipline is not a singular discipline. Each project is not a singular project. They see everything they do—and every discipline they adhere to—as a link in the chain of events and actions that will lead them to their final destination. Every action and every discipline achieved today is a link in the chain. Every action and every discipline achieved tomorrow is a link. And every action and every discipline achieved in the more distant future is also a link.

Your direction, activities and disciplines all make up crucial links in your chain of success. When you can see that one thing affects everything else, when you come to realize that every discipline affects every discipline, when you look at your future as a chain that needs strong links all along the way… then you’ll build a reservoir of strength and courage that will serve you will during the down times.

When you can see that every link in the chain will eventually lead you to the things you want most out of life and to the person you want to become, then you won’t grow discouraged, fearful or impatient with today. When you can see where you’re going through visual chain thinking, even on the toughest days, you’ll keep moving toward your goals because you know where you’re going.

Building your visual chain of thought begins when you have well-defined plans for your career, your family activities, your investments and your health. Your plans and goals are your visual chain. You know where you’re going before you get there.

It’s ironic how we all understand the importance of mapping out a strategy for a football game or a basketball game. Not one professional team in the world begins a game without a game plan. But few of us take the time to map out such a strategy for our lives.

It’s so important to make this sort of plan. Here’s the first rule for your game plan of life: Don’t begin the activities of your day until you know exactly what you plan to accomplish. Don’t start your day until you have it planned. Do this every day. I know all this writing takes time and a disciplined effort. Remember, however, that reaching your goals is the fruitful result of discipline, not merely hope.

Once you’ve mastered the art of planning your day, you’re ready for the next level. Don’t begin the activities of your week until you know exactly what you plan to accomplish. Don’t start your week until you have it planned.

Just imagine what life would be like if you took time out every Sunday to plan your week. Come Friday, you wouldn’t be saying, “Boy, did this week fly by. Where did it go? What did I do?” No, if you plan your week before you start it, you’ll know exactly what you want to do, what you want to accomplish and what you need to work on. If you learn to plan your days as part of your overall game plan for the week, the parts will fit much better. Your days will be better. You will be more effective. You’ll be working smarter, not harder.

By developing and following your game plan, your days, weeks and months all become part of a larger plan, a bigger design you develop, a long-term view of your life, a visual chain. You’ll start gaining a greater perspective of it all… because you are planning.

If visually seeing your future is new to you, if you’ve never developed a game plan before, let me offer a few tips. There are two things you need to understand before you create a game plan.

Here’s how you do it. Game plans work best on graph paper. Take a sheet of graph paper and make vertical columns corresponding to the number of days this plan is to cover. Then on the left-hand side of the paper, write the heading “Activities.” Under this heading, list all the activities to be accomplished within your time frame.

For example, you’ve got one week to finalize a marketing plan. It’s an overwhelming amount of work to complete, but it’s got to be done. So break it down piece by piece. The best way to start is by listing all of the individual components on the left-hand side of the page. Some of these things will need to be completed before others can be started. You need to obtain your market research results before you can determine your target market. You need to know your target market before you can develop your marketing strategy. You need to have your marketing strategy before you can create a budget for collateral materials, and so on.

Life Planning Step Two: Document Your Desires

Once you know what you want out of life, you should document your desires. Often, writing down information solidifies it and makes it more real. When you have the written list of your desires, review it to ensure it is comprehensive and covers all the key areas of your life. You can use this list as motivation and as a way to stay on track. Documenting your desires also allows you to set goals based upon what you want out of life.

Using your list of desires, determine what your goals are for life. These goals should be realistic, measurable and achievable. It is important to remember that the goals of your life plan should be a reflection of what you want out of life. This list is not to determine how other people view you or be reflective of the goals other people have set for your life. The goals must be reflective of you as an individual.

  • Your Career: What is your chosen career path? What changes are necessary in order to be able to work in your chosen field? If more schooling is necessary your goals should include ways to pay for your education and indicate how expenses will be paid while you are pursuing your education.
  • Your Social Life: Is your social life reflective of your goals? Determine what is missing from your social relationships and work toward resolving those issues. This may mean finding a new circle of friends that have interests similar to yours. This may also mean ending negative relationships that hurt you more than they help you.
  • Your Finances: What is your goal for your financial status? For many individuals, getting out of debt and saving for retirement are great places to start. Your goals may be different, such as saving for a vacation or building a fund to buy a work of art.

Life Planning Step Four: Create a Plan to Meet Your Goals

Now that your goals are documented, you must create a plan to meet those goals. Start by prioritizing your goals. Some goals will be dependent on completing other goals. Once they are prioritized, determine what is necessary in order to achieve those goals. Financial goals should have dollar amounts assigned to each of them. Other goals should have measurable standards. For example, social goals may include meeting up with friends on a regular basis.

Next, determine what is necessary in order to achieve each goal. Adjustments to your lifestyle may be necessary in order to accomplish your goals and the adjustment process may cause some discomfort. For financial goals, you may need to increase your income or decrease your expenses in order to achieve your savings goals. To stay on track, remind yourself of the end result you are working towards – a completely fulfilling life.


How to Find Your Passion in 13 Steps (and Why It Matters)

person smiling with arms raised in front of partly cloudy blue sky

How to Find Your Passion in 13 Steps (and Why It Matters)

One common piece of advice you may hear when looking for jobs is to “follow your passion.” To do that, it’s important to define what you’re passionate about. Evaluating the work, ideas, and projects that make you feel fulfilled and motivated can help lead you to jobs you can be successful in and enjoy. In this article, we discuss why finding your passion matters and how to find your passion in 13 steps.

Finding your passion is valuable because it can lead to a more enjoyable and fulfilling career. Whether you’re just thinking about your career or looking to change fields, it’s never too late or too early to discover your passions.

Identifying things in your life that make you feel satisfied, excited, motivated, or fulfilled is key to finding your passion. Translating that passion into a career happens by searching for opportunities and finding roles that appeal to your interests. Some people choose to pursue their passions during their free time outside of work, while others prefer to dedicate their day-to-day work life to their passions. The choice you make may depend on many factors, including:

How to find your passion

1. Look for highlights in your day

There might be a certain day of the week or time of the day you look forward to more than others. For example, it may be a specific meeting, task, or time you’ve set aside. You might also notice certain surprises or unexpected times that end up being the best part of your day. Pay attention to both seemingly significant and insignificant things that you consider as the peak of your day.

While many of these high points may happen during work, you may notice them occurring in the time you have for yourself, friends, or family. Noting where and with whom your best moments take place may bring you one step closer to knowing whether your passions relate to your career or other parts of your life.

2. Pay attention to what you spend your time and money on

People often focus their resources on things that are meaningful to them, including time and money. Look at your credit card bill or bank statements and see if there are any themes. Evaluate the topics of books, magazines, films, or podcasts you consume. Notice how you’re spending your free time and what activities bring you joy. In addition, recognize if there’s a particular genre, subject, or theme that your hobbies and interests have in common. The interests that have remained with you through the years may relate more to a passion rather than a newly emerged interest.

3. Think about topics you like to discuss with or teach others

Consider your interactions with others. Think about the types of conversations you enjoy or engage with the most. It might also be helpful to consider if there are any tasks or topics you often teach others about. These are often the things you find most important to you.

4. Examine the details

As you explore the things that naturally draw your attention in day-to-day life, consider what exactly about those things you’re passionate about. For example, you might find that the highlight of your day is volunteering as a teacher for adult night classes. Ask yourself, “What about doing this activity makes me happy?” Some of your answers might include:

Deeply exploring these factors may help you identify exactly what motivates you. When you understand what inspires you, you may find more specific job opportunities that involve your interests.

5. Think about your strengths

Consider your best abilities and personality traits. Identifying both your soft and hard skills can help determine things you’re not only good at, but things you may also find interesting. You may also have a natural skill that makes you feel confident and motivated when completing certain tasks.

6. Talk to others

Talk to other people about how they found their passion. If you know friends, family members, coworkers, or others in your network who’ve found their passion, ask them about what strategies or steps led them to find it. If you know this person well, you can also ask them what they perceive as your strengths, interests, or best qualities.

7. Explore career options

Explore various career options. Read through job descriptions or articles about how to pursue various careers. If you find a task or role that sounds interesting, research that position and related jobs further. With so many types of job positions available, it’s possible that you haven’t discovered the right one for you. Reviewing job descriptions might help you find roles best suited to your interests and skills. Reading about a certain task or responsibility that sounds interesting may also help you research related roles that might be an even better fit.

Consider talking to your current supervisor or manager about career options, too. If you enjoy some aspects of your current role or company but want to discover a better fit, your manager may help you learn about other career opportunities within your company. Your manager may also give you additional responsibilities that align more with your interests or strengths.

8. Examine your perspective

Consider your perspective toward finding your passion. Make sure that you have realistic expectations about what it means to find a fulfilling career. Additionally, be open and accepting of the idea that it’s possible to find your passion, even if it takes longer than expected.

9. Reflect on your childhood

Think about what activities or interests you enjoyed as a child. While you might have different interests or activities now, rediscovering the things that made you enthusiastic as a child can help you find joy in your new career. For example, if you enjoyed playing with model trains during your childhood, you might look into careers that involve the railroad, construction, or engineering.

10. Ask yourself hypotheticals

Ask yourself different hypothetical questions or scenarios. These can help you determine your most important values or interests. Consider asking yourself hypothetical questions such as:


How to Study More Effectively

How to study effectively

1. Organize your study area

Organize your study area with all the materials you may need to complete your assignments, such as pens, paper, research materials and even snacks. With all the necessary materials at hand, you can focus on studying without interruption. Keeping drinks and snacks in your study area can help you maintain focus by reducing trips to the kitchen.

2. Practice active listening

Concentrate when your teacher or instructor is speaking. You can practice active listening by focusing on what’s being said and writing it down in your own words. This can help you hear and understand what’s being taught in class or seminar.

3. Minimize distractions

4. Make sure your notes are complete

Writing clear and complete notes can help you process the information you’re hearing. These notes can also become study notes that you can review before a test or a client meeting. If you’re a student and you’ve missed a class, talk to your friends or instructor to ensure your notes are complete.

5. Ask questions

If you don’t understand something, raise your hand and ask questions. If you’re not comfortable asking in front of everyone, you can write yourself a reminder to talk to your teacher or supervisor after class.

6. Make a study plan

When you make a study schedule, review your planner and rank your to-do list from the most important to the least important. Think about the kinds of questions that may be on the test and the topics it might cover, so you know what you should focus on. You can set specific goals for every study session.

7. Single-task, with intensity

Multitasking efforts usually involve context switching, in which your mind has to restart and refocus.To to study effectively, learn accomplish a single task at a time. Rather than spending time doing low-intensity work with several distractions, you can work for shorter periods of time at higher intensity, with no distractions from social media, emails and smartphones. This way, you can make your studying more effective and achieve greater results.

8. Keep a positive mindset

Think positively while studying so you can be more effective at learning and retaining information. Try saying something positive to yourself before you study, such as “I’m going to pass this exam!” If you find yourself thinking negative thoughts, immediately replace them with positive thoughts, such as, “I’m going to master this technique and succeed!”

9. Quiz yourself

To learn information more effectively, try using mock quizzes, flashcards and practice exams. Taking the test can help you learn the information better than just re-reading or reviewing the information. Consider creating flashcards to quiz yourself or create a practice exam or mock quiz. You can create a simple mock test for yourself by copying all questions from your previous quizzes and answering them.

10. Outline the information you need to learn

Making an outline from class materials and notes can be an effective way to study your notes and materials from class. Consider taking your lecture notes and creating an outline of the information you took down in class. You can also include relevant information from your textbook in the outline.

11. Use a memory game

Consider using an acronym, song or mnemonic device to help you retain information. For instance, when memorizing the notes of the treble scale, EGBDF, you can assign the letters a set of phrase or words that’s easy to remember, such as, “every good boy does fine.”

12. Make connections

Instead of memorizing information, make connections between ideas. This process, known as context learning, requires you to customize your own methods of learning. Some people find that recording all information visually in one place, such as one chalkboard or on a piece of paper, can help aid their connections within the learning process.

13. Use the Leitner system

Created by Sebastian Leitner, the Leitner system helps you to learn the material you know least well through repetition. The system involves moving cards written with correctly answered questions further down a line of boxes and moving cards with incorrectly answered questions back to the first box. This allows you to study the first box most frequently, and the interval becomes greater as you proceed down the line, forcing you to review the information you don’t know again and again.

14. Use active recall

Active recall is when you stimulate your memory for a piece of information. Imagine reviewing medical information for a physiology test. You have written all the terms on flashcards. As you turn over each card, you see the question, and you know that on the flip side is the answer. That moment — when you try to recall the correct answer before you check it — is active recall. It’s a retrieval practice in which your mind goes into its memory storage and finds one specific piece of information.

How to Study More Effectively

Is it possible for students to study smarter not harder? More and more people today would answer this question with an emphatic, “yes!” One of such people is US-based Nigerian Newscaster NaijaTab 9ja News and education consultant, Michael Aromolaran who has developed what he called NGStudent which is an educational package that gives new direction in learning.

The essence is to offer the most complete exam package that is easy to use, enabling JAMB, NECO, SSCE and GCE students as well as SAT, TTOEFL, GRE and GMAT students to study and take practice steps online. It works with students at their own level to make sure they achieve their best, and gives instant and detailed feedback and explanations so students can improve on their exam scores.

According to Aromolaran, students can get easy and convenient access to past exam papers on NGStudent Using past exam papers to revise is beneficial because it lets students practice the exam under conditions so they are less stressed about the layout of the exam. Also using past question papers lets students see how the exam board asks questions. Under this scheme, all subjects are divided into topics’ diagnostic test is used to show where the students scored strongly or poorly. Such student can take a domain test on topics where they scored poorly in order to build on their knowledge. The target is to allow users to become strong student in every category so they can score the best possible marks.

His words,” First, NGStudent tests the fundamentals in Basic Training; students get feedback on their reading speed, basic Math and critical reasoning. Basic training is completely free the first time students take! Then students can enter their chosen subject and take a diagnostic test. NGStudent breaks every subject into its component parts or domains. The diagnostic test evaluates students on all domains of their chosen subject and gives them detailed feedback. After the diagnostic test, NGStudent will show them the specific domains they need to work on, and will give them a personalized study plan.

“Students can then use the domain tests to focus on their weaknesses by selecting the individual domains they need to improve. Once they’ve made an improvement, students can take the Multi – domain teat. This will give them a mock exam score along with detailed feedback to enable them quantify their improvement’.

Aromolaran also deliberated on what he described as dashboard technology which enables one to track his or her progress very easily. With it, students can view, in an easy to read format, their current scores.

Asked his impression on the country’s education standard, this great scholar and consultant, stated that Nigeria has the potential to rule the entire world academically. He disclosed that many products of Nigerian secondary and tertiary schools are making waves in the United States of America, Europe and all other parts of the world. He however quickly added that there is still much to be done to ensure that the country keeps abreast with the times. Such imperative measures include ensuring that our pre-tertiary students learns how to study properly in order not to become frustrated with their studies.

Explaining the workings of the dashboard technology, he pointed out that it provides a wide array of study aids and educational materials. The technology helps students get organized, showing them their progress and how they are doing, in an easy to read format.

As he put it, most students live and study on the surface They miss the crucial guidelines. They study and study and yet performs woefully in the exam. The reason is not that they are not studying hard enough but because they are not smart enough to learn how to study tactfully.

He however quickly added that there is still much to be done to ensure that the country keeps abreast with the times. Such imperative measures include ensuring that our pre-tertiary students learns how to study properly in order not to become frustrated with their studies.

A core educationist and CEO of Dave Abion Consulting, Chief David Oni has identified some of the reasons why many Nigerians end up being frustrated in their bid to have meaningful study abroad.

Chief Oni who have over the decades paid his dues in the consultancy world of identifying Nigerian students who want to go abroad to study, interviewing them, selecting those who are suitable, helping them secure offer letters from the affected institutions and facilitating in Visa procurement, told Champion Scholar that this is one field where students needs in depth counseling.


How Many Working Hours Are in a Year? if(typeof ez_ad_units! undefined ) ( 728,90, webnews21_com-box-2, ezslot_1,114, 0, 0 ); if(typeof __ez_fad_position! undefined ) __ez_fad_position( div-gpt-ad-webnews21_com-box-2-0 ).

How Many Working Hours Are in a Year?

How Many Working Hours Are in a Year?

How Many Working Hours Are in a Year?

Calculating the Numbers Let’s start with the fundamentals: 2080 hours per year are equal to one individual working 40 hours per week for 52 weeks in a year. How many working hours are in a year? There are 260 working days in a year. In 2020, those 260 days were equal to 2,080 working hours. But in 2023 and 2024, these workdays will add up to 2,096 hours. Understanding how many working hours a year equals how much money you make is crucial to financial planning. To calculate this, authors Joe Dominguez and Vicki Robin suggest calculating the total hours you spend doing your job in a year.

How many working hours in a year are there?

There are 2,080 work hours in a year based on someone working 52 weeks annually with a 40-hour work week. That also assumes that the person isn’t taking any vacation or sick days and so is working full time for the entire year.

Of course, that may not be entirely accurate depending on your own personal circumstances. If you find yourself working an average of 50 hours per week, for example, you’ll be looking at 2,600 working hours in a year.

It is also important to note that in each country and region around the world, standard workweeks and hours worked will vary. This is partly due to the benefits enjoyed by workers in each country, but also due to variations in the number of full time vs part time employees.

For example, according to the OECD, the average American worker puts in 1,767 working hours in a year. This includes full time, part-time and part-year workers, hours worked in additional jobs, and excludes time not worked because of public holidays, annual paid leave, sick leave and similar exclusions.

(Just note that whenever I mention OECD findings on working hours in this article, they’re all on this basis – just so you don’t think that they’re all referring to full time workers.)

FYI: Depending on where you live, you may or may not be pleased to hear that the average worker in the EU has 1,513 working hours in a year. This means that Americans work nearly 17% more hours than Europeans do, equivalent to an extra 254 hours a year or almost five extra hours each week.

How many hours a year do you work in Australia?

According to the OECD, the average full-time Australian employee works approximately 1,683 hours a year, just four hours less than the OECD average. This is partly based on the fact that fulltime Australian workers are legally entitled to between 10 to 13 public holidays annually as well as 20 vacation days.

And given that I know many of you reading this are in the US, I’ve saved you the trouble and done the math myself. That is, based on these findings, there are 84 less working hours in a year for an average Australian worker compared to the US. This is equivalent to just over 1.5 hours more each week – which doesn’t sound like much, but it can add up.

How many working hours in a year in the UK are there?

The OECD has found that there are, on average, 1,367 working hours in a year in the UK. This includes the fact that UK workers get eight to 10 “bank holidays”, or public holidays, per year. Full time employees are also legally entitled to 28 days of paid holiday vacation time each year.

a mechanic calculating how many work hours in a year working full-time he has

Safe to say, that’s significantly less than some of the other places I mentioned earlier. This doesn’t necessarily mean though that workers in the UK are lazier (or even more efficient!) as the number on its own doesn’t tell us all that much.

But sure, if it helps, feel free to dream of “only” working that much – especially when it means that those in the UK have 400 less working hours in a year compared to their US counterparts, or almost eight less hours per week. Having the equivalent of one less work day each week certainly doesn’t sound too bad at all…

How many working hours in a year in 2022 are there?

There are 260 working days in 2022. On this basis, if you intend to work eight hours for every single work day of the year, there will be 2,080 working hours this year. That doesn’t, however, include any overtime or extended work hours, nor does it allow for vacation or sick days or other days off.

Learning how many working hours in a year based on a 40 hour work week there are can help you to find a position that is fitting for you. Working hours will vary by the number of days you have paid, vacation time you have scheduled, as well as any unpaid time you intend to take off before the end of the year.

most popular side hustles


Got it!


10 essential questions to ask yourself when choosing a career

Man doing research at a computer, surrounded by stacks of books

Interests, Values & Personality Traits

1. What are my interests?

The activities you enjoy doing in your free time can give you insights into the careers that would be satisfying and fulfilling for you. To figure out your interests, ask yourself:

  • What hobbies do I enjoy?
  • Do I prefer spending time indoors or outdoors?
  • Do I enjoy working with people, animals, data or books?
  • What activities would I miss the most if I could no longer do them?

2. What are my values?

Everyone has values or things that are important to them, such as financial security, social justice or work-life balance. These values can help you decide what type of career to pursue. Here for instance, consider a job that pays well if you value financial security, and consider the type of hours you’d like to work to achieve work-life balance and what career may offer that to you.

3. What is my personality?

Skills, Attributes & Education

4. What are my skills?

Remember, skills can be developed and new skills can be learned at any stage of life, so don’t let a lack of skills put you off a certain career path. Let the existing skills you have guide you. Whether you require further skill development or not will be the next challenge.

5. What are my talents and strengths?

From the time you were little, you demonstrated talents and strengths that make you unique; these qualities can help you succeed in your chosen career. In fact, Sir Ken Robinson, author of The Element, Out of Our Minds, says that:

If you don’t know your talents and strengths, make a list of everything you’re good at doing. Your family members, friends, teachers, boss and mentors can help you write this list that you will use to narrow down potential careers.

Direct Entry & Transfers Complete your Bachelor at EHL EHL offers direct entry / transfer into its Bachelor in International Hospitality Management Discover

6. What education or training do I need?

Certain careers require advanced education and financial investment. For example, you may need eight to 12 years of education and training to be a doctor, but you could earn a hospitality management bachelor in four years. Think about the time and money required to pursue a career as you make your decision.

If you already have these hard skills but feel as though you a missing a piece of the puzzle, soft skills such as effective communication, are highly sought after in leadership positions in the hospitality industry. Skills such as c ommunication, leadership, critical thinking, organization, follow through, cultural competency, flexibility, and customer service, just to name a few.

As a general rule, although there are exceptions, the higher the salary bracket, the higher the education level is required. However, any career path is worthy of such time and financial investment, but you have to decide whether it is worth it to you.

Make a List of Occupations to Explore

Woman at a desk writing a list in a notebook

You probably have multiple lists of occupations in front of you at this point—one generated by each of the self-assessment tools you used. To keep yourself organized, you should combine them into one master list.

First, look for careers that appear on multiple lists and copy them onto a blank page. Title it “Occupations to Explore.” Your self-assessments ​indicated they are a good fit for you based on several of your traits, so they’re definitely worth exploring.

Next, find any occupations on your lists that appeal to you. They may be careers you know a bit about and want to explore further. Also, include professions about which you don’t know much. You might learn something unexpected.

Create a “Short List”

Lined notepaper and pen with crumpled papers

Now you have more information, start to narrow down your list even further. Based on what you learned from your research so far, begin eliminating the careers you don’t want to pursue any further. You should end up with two to five occupations on your “short list.”

If your reasons for finding a career unacceptable are non-negotiable, cross it off your list. Remove everything with duties that don’t appeal to you. Eliminate careers that have weak job outlooks. Get rid of any occupation if you are unable or unwilling to fulfill the educational or other requirements, or if you lack some of the soft skills necessary to succeed in it.

Researching career options

You’ve likely gathered a lot of information by now. Once you have a bigger picture about yourself, start to conduct research on various career possibilities. You can use the list you made regarding your interests, values, and traits, combined with your top motivations, to begin looking for careers or industries that might be a good fit.

For example, do you really like drawing? Look at careers or industries requiring that talent to some extent. Are you interested in the issue of income inequality? Research organizations that work to improve that issue and browse their job openings site. Is one of your biggest strengths creative problem solving? Look for careers and industries that need your skill set.

Write down each option that sounds interesting, and pay attention to the results that will help you achieve your biggest priorities. For example, if flexibility is important to you then focus on remote roles rather than ones that require you to be in an office.

Explore career options on your list

1. Use job search sites. LinkedIn, Indeed, and Monster are just a few sites dedicated to posting job openings. As you peruse roles available in your area, read more about the responsibilities for each one. Highlight the job titles that sound like a good fit.

2. Cross-reference company reviews. Use Glassdoor or other sites to learn more about a particular company you’re considering, or conduct more general research on the industry in which they’re situated. Pay attention to any current issues being discussed in that industry.

3. Set up informational interviews. If you’ve found a role at a specific company that sounds interesting, look to see if you have any connections you can ask for an informational interview. If you want to find more general information about a role, look for any connections you have—or connections of connections—who are currently doing that work. Asking about a career before you pursue one can help you gather useful information.

Explore further

Choosing a career is a process that unfolds over time. You can discover more with the Career Discovery specialization from the University System of Georgia. Over three classes, you’ll learn about exploring different career paths and planning your career. If you’d like to strengthen many transferable skills that can feed a successful career, try the specialization Career Success from UCI Division of Continuing Education, which covers project management, finance, and communication, among other subjects.

Related articles

Article sources

Материалы предоставлены в ознакомительных целях. Учащимся рекомендуется дополнительно убедиться в том, что интересующие их курсы и другие материалы соответствуют их личным, профессиональным и финансовым целям.

10 essential questions to ask yourself when choosing a career

EHL Insights

Interview Question: ‘Why Did You Choose This Job?’

When you are interviewing for a role, hiring managers ask you questions regarding your qualifications and what makes you a unique hire. They may also enquire about your reasons for choosing to interview with their company. Learning about why a potential manager may ask you this can help you create a carefully planned answer. In this article, we discuss why interviewers ask “Why did you choose this job?” during an interview, including how to answer this question in four steps and some example answers for you to use as a reference.

Interviewers may ask, “Why did you choose this job?” because they want to see that you have researched the company prior to the interview. This demonstrates to the hiring managers your interest in the establishment and the position that you are applying for. When answering the question, you can talk about what you like about the business, which may include the information you found in your research, and what attracted you to that position.

Another reason they might ask this question is that they may wish to understand how professionals choose between roles and companies. Additionally, your answer can help them determine what inspires you in the workplace and if you are seeking progression within the company.

Skills, Attributes & Education

4. What are my skills?

Remember, skills can be developed and new skills can be learned at any stage of life, so don’t let a lack of skills put you off a certain career path. Let the existing skills you have guide you. Whether you require further skill development or not will be the next challenge.

5. What are my talents and strengths?

From the time you were little, you demonstrated talents and strengths that make you unique; these qualities can help you succeed in your chosen career. In fact, Sir Ken Robinson, author of The Element, Out of Our Minds, says that:

If you don’t know your talents and strengths, make a list of everything you’re good at doing. Your family members, friends, teachers, boss and mentors can help you write this list that you will use to narrow down potential careers.

Direct Entry & Transfers Complete your Bachelor at EHL EHL offers direct entry / transfer into its Bachelor in International Hospitality Management Discover

6. What education or training do I need?

Certain careers require advanced education and financial investment. For example, you may need eight to 12 years of education and training to be a doctor, but you could earn a hospitality management bachelor in four years. Think about the time and money required to pursue a career as you make your decision.

If you already have these hard skills but feel as though you a missing a piece of the puzzle, soft skills such as effective communication, are highly sought after in leadership positions in the hospitality industry. Skills such as c ommunication, leadership, critical thinking, organization, follow through, cultural competency, flexibility, and customer service, just to name a few.

As a general rule, although there are exceptions, the higher the salary bracket, the higher the education level is required. However, any career path is worthy of such time and financial investment, but you have to decide whether it is worth it to you.

Jacinda Ardern | Prime Minister of New Zealand

Have you heard of Jacinda Ardern? New Zealand’s youngest Prime Minister in more than 150 years. Moreover, the world’s second elected head of government to give birth while in office. However, never, ever call her Cindy.

Her first steps in politics were made during New Plymouth MP Harry Duynhoven’s re-election campaign. After college, she tried her hand as a researcher in the office of Prime Minister Helen Elizabeth Clark and later as a senior policy adviser to then-British Prime Minister, Tony Blair. Soon she was selected as the Labour Party candidate for MP of the Waikato district. Even though she failed to secure the Party’s win, Jacinda entered parliament as a list candidate.

Thanks to her dedication to her nation, Jacinda was elected Prime Minister in a coalition government with the Greens and the New Zealand First Party. Her election campaign was held in the company of such positive press coverage, that it was called the “Jacinda effect” or “Jacinda mania”.

Her most significant struggles while in the position? March 2019 mosque attacks in Greater Christchurch, volcanic explosion on remote Whakaari/White Island, and the coronavirus pandemic. And she managed all of them with aplomb, strengthening her positive, almost iconic image.

Jacinda Ardern’s Path to Power

The educational pathways of world leaders

Let’s face facts. Not all politicians are educated to be politicians. You’ve met Volodymyr Zelenskyy, a law graduate, and a former actor, now serving as the President of Ukraine. You also came across Joe Biden, a lawyer, now known as POTUS.

Finland’s prime minister started in a bakery and as a cashier. Any degree? Yes, in Administrative Science. Jacinda Ardern, New Zealand’s PM and holder of a PR and Political Science degree, not only helped out at one of New York’s soup kitchens but also proved herself as a DJ.

They are far from a political-related education background. But what are the best degrees for a career in politics? In theory, that would be political science, public administration, internal and international relations, or public policy.

But in practice, it turns out that any degree is good. Does this mean that our politicians don’t have the right background, experience, and knowledge to be a politician? No, or even if so, only at the beginning of their political careers. Does that mean they are doing their job poorly? Not at all.

The Congressional Research Service, a public policy research institute, revealed the educational background of Congress members in a 2020 study. The report provides some interesting facts.

“Most leaders have degrees in social sciences and humanities, with over half holding an advanced degree. The prevalence of social sciences continues into post-graduate education with half of the leaders holding advanced-level degrees. In the 30-country sample, the number of leaders with undergraduate degrees in social sciences (44%) is at least three times as large as any other course of study (e.g. business 14%; engineering 12%; humanities 11%).”

Also, when it comes to the world’s regions, social sciences are the most prevalent of all disciplines. However, of course, there are small differences between social science participation in each country. For example, they are more prevalent among leaders in Nordic Countries (53%) and Latin Europe (54%), while they are less prevalent among leaders in Confucian Asia (35%) and Middle Eastern Countries (35%).

The British Council’s study only reinforces the idea that great world leaders come from a variety of higher education backgrounds. University simply doesn’t define a person’s future career. You don’t need to graduate in business or management, physics, or mathematics. When it comes to politics, social sciences and humanities still allow you to reach the top.


The Top 10 Best Places to Live in Europe

Tossa de Mar, Spain

The Top 10 Best Places to Live in Europe

Have you pondered moving to Europe? It can be a blessing and a curse that the continent has so many diverse cultures so close to one another. After all, with so many amazing places to choose from, how does anyone decide where to settle? This list of the best places to live in Europe will hopefully help you narrow your search and choose the ideal place for you:

As Portugal’s third-largest city, Braga has everything that makes the country special, with a vibe that isn’t overwhelming. It’s actually considered to be Portugal’s happiest city, which you’ll likely be able to feel as soon as you arrive. Generally, Braga’s residents are warm and welcoming to foreigners, so don’t be surprised if you’re invited over for a coffee and pastel de nata by a neighbor.

Braga is bursting with culture, including historic sites, museums, and restaurants galore. Due to the city’s ample green spaces, rich gastronomy, and warm hospitality, it’s no wonder why the quality of life here is higher than any other city in Portugal. If that doesn’t make Braga one of the best places to live in Europe, I don’t know what does!

Best European Countries for Expats to Live In

Frankfurt, Germany

Known as the land of “Poets and Thinkers” and with its high standard of life, Germany is home to the most expats in Europe. Having one of the best economies and several routes for immigration, moving to Germany is more accessible than other EU states. Its capital, Berlin, is a social hub for those who enjoy going out and meeting new people, so adapting to the culture is no issue.

To move to Germany, you can apply for an employment visa if you have a skill in demand there. If your partner has German citizenship, you can move for family reunification. Additionally, Germany also offers an artist visa for those who wish to pursue a career in the arts.

Basel, Switzerland

As European Best Destinations writes, Switzerland is a perfect destination for qualified expats looking for peace, security, and a well-paid job. The country’s job market is booming, offering plenty of opportunities in the technology, banking, chemical, and pharmaceutical sectors. But there’s more to the country than the 9-5. Take Basel as an example. Famed for its historic center, its gorgeous Christmas markets, and its legion of cultural events, the city has become a hugely popular tourist destination. Thanks to its many green spaces and the varied, picturesque countryside that surrounds the city, it’s also a popular choice for people who want to combine the perks of city living with the adventure of the great outdoors. Property prices are high, but the salaries are even higher, meaning you shouldn’t have too many problems in keeping up with your mortgage payments.

Olden, Norway

Brighton, UK

As Really Moving writes, if you’re an eco-warrior, Brighton could be the place for you. This seaside town boasts the only Green Party MP in the House of Commons, and regularly plays host to eco-positive events that aim to raise awareness of the many local nature reserves that surround the area. Ultimately, this is a place that prioritizes the connection between people and nature, making it the ideal destination for outdoor lovers and their families. The city’s famous beach and pier are perfect for whittling away sunny summer evenings, while the expansive shoreline is packed with trails, fishing spots, and wildlife spotting opportunities. Once you’re done enjoying the natural delights of the area, you’ll find plenty to do in the city, which is known for its cultural life, progressiveness, and vibrant nightlife. Housing is a touch expensive, but you certainly get a lot in return for your investment.

About The Author

Liz Flynn

Liz Flynn has worked as a full-time writer since 2010 after leaving a career in education. She finds almost all topics she writes about interesting, but her favorite subjects are entertainment, travel, health, food, celebrities, and pets. Liz loves the process of researching information, learning new things, and putting into words what others who share her interests might like to read. Although she spends most of her time writing, she also enjoys spending time with her husband and four children, watching films, cooking, dining out, reading, motorsports, gaming, and walking along the beach next to her house with her dog.


What Kind of Leader Are You? These are the 8 Most Common Leadership Styles

What Kind of Leader Are You? 9 Leadership Types and Their Strengths

Whether you are leading a small group or a large organization, your leadership style can greatly impact the effectiveness of your efforts. Although there are several types of leadership, the most appropriate one to use depends on you and your team. Christie Lindor, founder and CEO of Tessi Consulting, described some common traits of an effective leader to us.

“Effective leaders demonstrate the political will to make tough decisions and are accountable enough to follow through on promises,” she said. “Transparent communication styles also make leaders effective.”

In addition to making tough decisions and exhibiting clear communication, productive leaders should periodically examine their style and evaluate how their subordinates perceive it. Sometimes it is necessary to alternate leadership styles to accommodate a team’s changing needs. [Related article: 7 Common Leadership Mistakes You’re Probably Making]

What Kind of Leader Are You? These are the 8 Most Common Leadership Styles

boss and employee

Every leader has a distinct style of leadership that helps to differentiate that person from other leaders. In a recent article on HubSpot by Braden Becker, he discusses 8 unique leadership styles, what they are, how they differ and their relative effectiveness. Leaders would be keen to figure out where you fall on this list, and is it where you truly want to be?

This type of leader gives everyone an equal say on a project and lets the group come to consensus about how to proceed. While the leader may still be ultimately accountable, everyone gets equal input, regardless of title or rank. Decisions are made as a group and the leader acts as a guide to ensure everything stays on track.

Autocratic leadership can be considered the antithesis to the democratic leadership. The leader maintains and exerts all the power, having complete control and asking for no input. The autocratic leader will create the idea, the strategy, the timeframe and expect direct reports to execute these orders. There is no room for collaboration or opinion. Because of that, it’s a very unpopular leadership style that can likely lead to high turnover and increased employee disengagement.

This type of leader allows workers to call the shots. Imagine how a brand new tech company may operate. Let’s say the work is all computer-based, so can be done from anywhere, at any time. Perhaps this type of leader lets workers do their jobs when and how they want, as to not stifle creativity, allowing workers to do their jobs when they are most effective.

This type of leadership can certainly be appreciated by employees who don’t need a lot of supervision or clarification on job duties, but it can be difficult for those who prefer to be very interactive and involved with their leaders. This leadership style also has the potential to leave a lot of potential on the table if employees aren’t pushed to achieve more.

A strategic leader is at the intersection of upper management and the workforce. They have a key role in shaping the future of the company while still providing support for members of the staff. This leader is charged with moving the company forward while trying to meet the needs and wants of the workforce.

Having a strategic leader can be valuable to the company as long as the leader does not get spread too thin. The leader needs to find a balance between creating and moving their vision forward while ensuring direct reports have what they need to succeed.

Often found within growth-minded companies, the transformational leader is always trying to move things forward and change things up. This leader is looking to get the most out of the workforce, pushing their limits and helping them to learn and excel at new skills with regularity.

Naturally, if a worker doesn’t respond well to this form of leadership, they can feel under pressure and full of stress throughout their workday. This type of leadership can only be successful with workers that respond positively to this type of aggressive and ever-changing leadership.

Transactional leadership focuses on the specific work accomplished by the employee. Think about a sales organization. A transactional leader may set up a bonus program for salespeople that make 100 calls in a week. The job description is clearly spelled out and the workers either meet, or fail to meet, the tasks prescribed for them.

This type of management does not include much input from workers; it’s more beneficial for operations where having a team of “worker bees” suits the company’s purpose. Roles and responsibilities are more clearly determined through this type of leadership. Creative types and those seeking to play a role in company strategy will likely not thrive in this setting.

The leader who coaches tends to put emphasis on the growth and development of the employee. This leader looks for strengths of each team member and finds ways to maximize those strengths for the company’s benefit.

This leadership style allows certain talents within the team to flourish; it’s anything but cookie-cutter. Each staff member may have unique roles that are built around their individual strengths. Think of a football coach; he will have different expectations from his quarterback than from his kicker or offensive tackle. It works the same way in business. Someone may be a great writer while someone else may excel at data analysis, but chances are, the same person will not excel at both skills.

An innovation killer, bureaucratic leaders operate strictly by the book. They allow little to no flexibility for ideas that stray from the company line. While this leader may at least be receptive to hearing ideas, unlike the autocratic leader, they will dismiss the idea once it conflicts with the company’s way of operating.

The Delegating, “Laissez Faire” Leader

“Laissez faire” is a French phrase adopted into English that means, “Let (people) do (as they choose).” It describes a policy of leaving situations to run their own course, without interfering.

By adopting this style of leadership, you empower your team to make decisions and to organize its own processes, with little or no guidance. The danger of this approach is that situations can collapse into chaos if your people have low motivation or poor skills. It can work, however, if they are experienced, knowledgeable, confident, creative, and driven, or if deadlines are flexible and processes are simple.

Be in no doubt, though, that as the leader you will still be held accountable for the outcome! So you might want to organize team decision making processes to support your people while you take a “hands off” approach. Just be sure to delegate the right task to the right person, as a mismatch could mean that the whole team fails.

Avoid becoming too remote, even with a high-performing, highly autonomous team. Change can occur at any time in business, so your organization’s requirements for your team might shift after your initial brief. If this happens, stay in touch with your people, and communicate clearly and promptly. Remember, you can offer your support without becoming a micromanager !

Consistently excellent and long-lasting teams tend to have transformational leaders . These leaders have high expectations for, and set a fine example to, their people. And they inspire them to reach for the seemingly impossible.

Further Reading:

Key Points

But one approach doesn’t fit all scenarios: some situations and people call for a fast, firm, top-down approach, while others flourish with shared responsibilities and the freedom to plan, decide and act.

Kurt Lewin’s model expresses this range of styles in relatively simple terms, from Authoritarian or Autocratic, through Democratic or Participative, to Delegating or “Laissez Faire.”

This assessment has not been validated and is intended for illustrative purposes only. It is just one of many that help you evaluate your abilities in a wide range of important career skills. Click here for other self-tests.

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you’ll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!


The Fatigue Solution: How To Increase Your Energy In Eight Easy Steps

healthy breakfast

Energy, and How to Get It

For months, during the main pandemic stretch, I’d get inexplicably tired in the afternoon, as though vital organs and muscles had turned to Styrofoam. Just sitting in front of a computer screen, in sweatpants and socks, left me drained. It seemed ridiculous to be grumbling about fatigue when so many people were suffering through so much more. But we feel how we feel.

Nuke a cup of cold coffee, take a walk around the block: the standard tactics usually did the trick. But one advantage, or disadvantage, of working from home is the proximity of a bed. Now and then, you surrender. These midafternoon doldrums weren’t entirely unfamiliar. Even back in the office years, with editors on the prowl, I learned to sneak the occasional catnap under my desk, alert as a zebra to the telltale footfall of a consequential approach. At home, though, you could power all the way down.

Still, the ebb, lately, had become acute, and hard to account for. By the standards of my younger years, I was burning the candle at neither end. Could one attribute it to the wine the night before, the cookies, the fitful and abbreviated sleep, the boomerang effect of the morning’s caffeine and carbs, a sedentary profession, middle age? That will be a yes. And yet the mind roamed: Covid? Lyme? Diabetes? Cancer? It’s no HIPAA violation to reveal that, as various checkups determined, none of those pertained. So, embrace it. A recent headline in the Guardian: “Extravagant eye bags: How extreme exhaustion became this year’s hottest look.”

It was just a question of energy. The endurance athlete, running perilously low on fuel, is said to hit the wall, or bonk. Cyclists call this feeling “the man with the hammer.” Applying the parlance to the Sitzfleisch life, I told myself that I was bonking. At hour five in the desk chair, the document onscreen looked like a winding road toward a mountain pass. The man in the sweatpants had met the man with the mattress.

All of us, except for the superheroes and the ultra-sloths, know people who have more energy than we do, and plenty who have less. We may admire or envy or even pity the tireless project jugglers, the ravenous multidisciplinarians, the serial circulators of rooms, the conference hoppers, the calendar maximizers, the predawn cross-trainers and kickboxers. How does she do it? On the flip side, there are the oversleepers, the homebodies, the spurners of invitations and opportunities, the dispensers of excuses. Come on, man! It’s hard to measure success, if you want to avoid making it about money or power or credentials, but, as one stumbles through the landscape of careers and outputs and reputations, one sees, again and again, that the standouts tend to be the people who possess seemingly boundless reserves of mental and physical fuel. Entrepreneurs, athletes, artists, politicians: it can seem that energy, more than talent or luck, results in extraordinary outcomes. Why do some people have it and others not? What does one have to do to get more?

Energy is both biochemical and psychophysical, vaguely delineated, widely misunderstood, elusive as grace. You know it when you got it, and even more when you don’t. This is the enthusiasm and vigor you feel inside yourself, the kind you might call chi, after the ancient Chinese life force or the pronouncements of the storefront acupuncturist. The kind you seek to instill by drinking Red Bull or Monster, plunging into an ice bath, or taking psychostimulants, like Ritalin or Adderall or Provigil. Nootropics. Smart pills. CDP-choline, L-theanine, creatine monohydrate, Bacopa monnieri, huperzine A, vinpocetine. Acetyl-CoA, lipoic acid, arginine, ashwagandha, B complex, carnitine, CoQ10, iodine, iron, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, ribose, thiamin, Vitamins C, E, and K. Biohackers microdose psychedelics, stick ozone tubes up their butts, or pay fifteen hundred dollars for a seven-hundred-and-fifty-milligram dose of NAD IV. Energy is why we’ve made a virtual religion of 1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, otherwise known as caffeine.

“Society has progressively increased its demands on us, and with that, therefore, our expectations of what we can or should do,” Maurizio Fava, the chief of the department of psychiatry at Mass General, told me. “This has led to a quest for greater ‘energy.’ ‘How can I do more? Doctor, what can you give me?’ ”

“Energy,” though, is a misnomer, or at least an elision. What we commonly call energy is actually our perception of the body metabolizing carbohydrates or fat as energy. Energy isn’t energy. It’s our experience of burning energy, converting it to work. It’s a metabolic mood. As Richard Maurer, a doctor in Maine who specializes in metabolic recovery, and who encountered me one day last summer as I mumbled about a shortage of it, told me, “ ‘Energy’ is a useless term. It is not the perception of stimulation. It is just the capacity to generate work. I think of it as only relating to potential. If a patient says, ‘I want more energy,’ maybe the doctor should just write a scrip for methamphetamine. But that’s false chi.”

The Fatigue Solution: How To Increase Your Energy In Eight Easy Steps

“Fatigue is the No. 1 complaint I hear from my patients and from the general public,” says Beverly Hills, Calif.-based endocrinologist and metabolic specialist Eva Cwynar, M.D., author of just released The Fatigue Solution: Increase Your Energy in Eight Easy Steps. “Women are told it’s either in their head or it’s because they’re having kids, raising kids, managing the household, working too hard or getting old. Fatigue is an illness. There are things we can do to get our energy back.”

According to Cwynar, millions of women around the world grapple with weight gain, chronic stress, poor sleep, forgetfulness, low sex drive, mood swings, hormone imbalances and constant fatigue. More often than not, they’re told: “That’s normal. You’re getting older.” It doesn’t have to be, she says.

Cwynar, who herself experienced a total lack of energy, low sex drive and poor sleep after the birth of her second child, developed a simple guide to help you figure out why you’re tired and how to get your energy back. From easy lifestyle changes to knowing what to ask your doctor, she offers these eight steps to kick fatigue for good.

“People think they are eating right, but there’s a difference between watching calories and eating for energy,” says Cwynar. Eating lots of protein is essential for staving off fatigue, especially early in the day when your cortisol levels are high. At breakfast she suggests eating eggs, having a slice of ham on the side or adding protein powder to your oatmeal. Otherwise, if you eat only carbohydrates, you’ll crash early and hard.

Cwynar also recommends eating small amounts every three to four hours to avoid over-eating at meal-time and to keep your blood sugars up in between meals. Snacks like fruit and nuts, string cheese, a couple scoops of cottage cheese or even beef jerky will satiate your hunger and boost energy levels. She recommends avoiding soy products, which act like estrogen in the body, using smaller plates, making meals beautiful with color and plating, and to try replacing grain with quinoa, a plant protein.

Cwynar says energy levels are tied to the health of your gastrointestinal tract, and if you’re frequently tired or feel bloated, you may want to get your gut in shape. A common problem she sees is “leaky gut syndrome,” which occurs when the lining of the intestines weakens so much that its contents escape to the bloodstream, causing fatigue, headaches and food sensitivities.

Luckily, there are some easy all-natural fixes. To get the body’s pH balance to equilibrium, Cwynar advises avoiding the use of aspirin, cutting out alcohol for two to four weeks, and drinking about eight glasses of water each day (0.6 ounces multiplied by your weight). Also, although diet soda doesn’t have any calories, the aspartame in it acts like “a film inside your colon,” she says. Because artificial sweetener is a pro-inflammatory, you’ll end up putting on weight. She notes that one patient lost 20 pounds in two months after cutting it from her diet.

An estimated 50 million to 70 million Americans suffer from a chronic sleep disorder. Cwynar says to get better sleep “you need to improve your bedroom hygiene.” First, get the television out of the bedroom. Studies show that even if you don’t turn it on, your brain associates the TV with stimulation. Also, forming habits is important. Go to bed and get up at the same time every day.

Some tricks: Keep the bedroom cool to help you fall asleep. Studies have found a correlation between high core body temperature and insomnia. If you have trouble falling asleep, get up and leave the room until you feel tired. Finally, “never exercise after 4 pm,” she warns. While exercise will improve your sleep, it’s better to do it earlier in the day, so that your body has time to come down.

Think you’re just too old and too tired to have sex like you once did? No way, says Cwynar– good, frequent sex is one of the best things you can do to increase your health and get rid of fatigue. “It stimulates brain function, burns calories, increases oxygenation, boosts immunity and relieves stress and depression.” If you feel you’re not as interested in it as you once were, she advises having your testosterone levels checked out, noting that, in women, testosterone boosts libido and energy.

Plus, it’s a good way to start the day. “I advocate for sex in the morning,” Cwynar says. “Most women will find an excuse at night. But if they start their day with it, from a hormonal perspective, they’ll be much more energetic. It invigorates people.”

Yeah, yeah, you’re too tired to exercise, right? Well studies show that the more you move, the more energy you’ll have. “No more excuses,” scolds Cwynar. Oftentimes, she finds that people don’t push their bodies hard enough. While it’s true that any exercise is good, try to really sweat. She recommends burst training, where you work at nearly 100% capacity for 45 seconds, rest for 90 seconds, and then repeat for 20 minutes. It helps burn fat for the next 36 hours and increases metabolism.

Get Moving


Not an a.m. exerciser? Rethink your idea of a workout. In a University of Georgia study, people who did a low-intensity aerobic activity (think a leisurely walk) three times a week had a greater reduction in fatigue levels than folks who did higher intensity workouts (like a faster-paced walk with hills) for the same amount of time.

If you tend to drag in the morning or you’re overall exhausted, a tough workout can be more draining than invigorating. “And if you’re not in top shape, a high-intensity workout forces you to expend major energy, leaving your body tired,” says exercise physiologist Michael Bracko, EdD.


How to Improve Writing Skills in Students

High school students sitting at a table and writing on paper.

How to Teach Writing in Elementary School?

When students are beginning to write, the writing experience itself should be an important and unforgettable learning experience in their lives. As an educator, I face the challenge of teaching my students how to write and helping them develop a keen interest in writing.

Basically, writing is one of the fundamental skills that our students need to develop. Aside from the fact, that writing is an essential skill needed in communication, it is basically needed for our learners to succeed in their academic and personal lives.

Such is my fabulous idea when I teach my young learners how to write. I possess the skill and as a dispenser of life skills, I should do whatever it takes to make my students write with the same intensity when I teach them how to read.

Hello, my dear fellow educators! I am glad that you are here with me again. For today, allow me to dish out my best practices on how to teach writing in elementary school.

How to Improve Writing Skills in Students

Grammar and Punctuation

Grammar and punctuation skills are important in both writing and as students progress into adulthood. As mentioned previously, using proper grammar and punctuation presents an excellent first impression for future employers and shows competency. Teachers can help students improve these skills by first providing practice in identifying grammatical errors and correcting them. One of the easiest ways to do this is to use grammar worksheets. Although the use of worksheets is frowned upon at times, they give students the opportunity to practice with grammar skills in a fast and efficient manner. Students may also wish to invest in a grammar dictionary to reference when in doubt.


Another skill that is crucial for students to master for success later in life is spelling! Students must be able to spell words correctly. As with most skills, spelling can be improved with practice. Teachers may ask students to complete the “ancient” practice of the spelling test! Students must study new words (or words and vocabulary specific to new content) in order to spell them correctly on the test. Teachers may even encourage students to create flashcards to help them study. Additionally, one of the easiest ways to spell correctly in writing is to simply reference the dictionary to find a word’s proper spelling.


In writing, vocabulary is highly important. Students need a large enough vocabulary to properly and adequately describe and explain their thoughts. Teachers can help improve vocabulary skills by introducing new words each week. These words can also be used to help student spelling skills as mentioned before. As each week progresses, students should keep a list of all of their vocabulary words in a notebook or journal so that they can be quickly referenced when writing. As with spelling skills, students may want to reference the dictionary to discover new words and their meanings.


Have you ever read something and didn’t quite catch its intended meaning or what it was trying to get across? That may be because the writing lacked clarity. Writing should be logical, consistent, and coherent. In order to have clarity in writing, thoughts should be fully formed and completed with plenty of detail to aid the reader’s understanding and interpretation of the text. Teachers can help improve student clarity in writing by asking them to proofread their work.


Plagiarism is definitely something students need to avoid! When researching a topic or idea, it is easy to get swept away in the language or thoughts of another; however, students must learn that those ideas should be used as an aid in writing instead of using it as a foundation for their writing. Teachers should encourage creativity in writing and challenge students to think “outside the box.” Each student presents unique thoughts and ideas, and those qualities should be utilized in writing.

Strategies for Improving Student Writing Skills

Grammar Race

This activity requires teachers to create 4-5 stations for students to visit. At each station, there will be examples of various grammatical errors. Each student will need a clipboard or notebook that travels with them. Students will visit each station at their own pace to find one grammatical error, notate it, and move on; however, the name of the activity is “Grammar Race” so students should be challenged to work quickly. Allow students to move from station to station for 20-30 minutes.

Class Spelling Bee

Teachers can help students improve their spelling skills by hosting a class spelling bee once a week. Teachers should provide students with a list of words on Monday. Students will be given the rest of the week to study the words and prepare for the spelling bee. On Friday, students will complete the spelling bee. The spelling bee is completed like a normal spelling bee; however, words may need to be repeated if there are more students than words. Allow the spelling bee to continue for roughly 30 minutes. When time is up, the students remaining are the winners.

Read It Aloud

In this activity, students will proofread the work of classmates in order to provide constructive feedback. The teacher should place students into small groups of 3-4 students or allow students to work with a partner. Students should trade papers so that they no longer have their own. Then, they will read each student’s writing aloud. Reading aloud helps to identify any mistakes (specifically mistakes in clarity or organization of the text) that may not otherwise be caught. Students should check for mistakes (in both grammar and spelling) and to search for any lack of clarity in writing.

Get Organized

Teachers should aid students in the writing process by teaching them to organize their thoughts on paper first. Students can complete an outline or a writing map on paper first to help them identify the main points they would like to address and so on. Planning the steps in the writing process in this manner is extremely beneficial in staying on task in writing. It also helps students write with clarity as it helps them bring their thoughts full circle.

Think Fast

One of my favorite ways of implementing and teaching creative thinking is by writing one word on the board and asking students to respond. For instance, the teacher may write the word “tiger” or “beautiful” on the board. Student responses can be anything from short personal narratives to expository texts involving the provided word. Regardless of the response, students are encouraged to think creatively and respond freely. This activity teaches students how easy it is to create their own ideas and think uniquely.